I. Initials Finals

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by Hsin-Yun Yao

Symbols Pinyin Romanization Place of Articulation Manner of Articulation Examples
1. Bilabials
I1 /b-/ bilabial voiceless, unaspirated and stopped /ba/
I2 /p-/ bilabial voiceless, aspirated and stopped /pen/
I3 /m-/ bilabial voiced nasal /ma/
2. Labiodental
I4 /f-/ labiodental voiceless fricative /feng/
3. Apicals
I5 /d-/ apical voiceless, unaspirated and stopped /deng/
I6 /t-/ apical voiceless, aspirated and stopped /tang/
I7 /n-/ apical voiceless nasal /niu/
I8 /l-/ apical voiced lateral /lu/
4. Velars
I9 /g-/ velar voiceless, unaspirated and stopped /gou/
I10 /k-/ velar voiceless, aspirated and stopped /ku/
(to cry)
I11 /h-/ velar voiceless, fricative /hu/
5. Front Palatals
I12 /j(i)/ front palatal voiceless, unaspirated and affricate /jian/
I13 /q(i)/ front palatal voiceless, aspirated and affricate /qi/
I14 /x(i)/ front palatal voiceless, fricative /xi/(west)
6. Retroflexes
I15 /zh(i)/ retroflex voiceless, unaspirated and affricate /zhu/
I16 /ch(i)/ retroflex voiceless, aspirated and affricate /chi/
I17 /sh(i)/ retroflex voiceless, fricative /shu/
I18 /r(i)/ retroflex voiced fricative /rou/
7. Blade-alveolars
I19 /z(i)/ blade-alveolar voiceless, unaspirated and affricate /zou/
I20 /c(i)/ blade-alveolar voiceless, aspirated and affricate /cao/
I21 /s(i)/ blade-alveolar voiceless, fricative /san/

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